Tony Milne was born in Scotland. He lived in Nigeria and Spain before moving to England. Now he resides in Paris. His grandparents were born in four different countries. He has travelled widely and has visited more than fifty countries.

Twenty years ago, he began to write books. His first work was about the British occupation of northern France after the battle of Agincourt. His research highlighted the dogma that pervades popular and academic writing, suffused as it is with political and diplomatic propaganda, hearsay, sexed-up dossiers and religious fantasy. Those responsible for the very real destruction, mutilation and murder that culminated in the burning of a 19 year-old girl for wearing trousers justified themselves with legal obfuscation, while later eulogizers glorified her pathetic sacrifice. Neither of these points of view made much sense, nor are they easily explicable except through banal and debunked theories such as the divine right of kings, patriotism, dualism and the life hereafter.

Further research showed that there was little to explain the spectacular success of the human species in growing from a typical mammalian population of a few million to the billions of today. Some historians focused on great men/great date/great technology/great product/great nature theories, while others rejected these to support some social theory of contemporary importance. There are claims that benevolence, altruism, intelligence, tool use, language separate us from the beasts. While these colourful additions to humanity make for interesting reading, there is no evidence that they are responsible for the vast increase in population of Homo sapiens at the expense of other species and individuals that are benevolent, altruistic, intelligent, use tools and communicate. Co-operation is necessary for human survival, and is perhaps the defining characteristic of the human race. Scientists study how co-operation works, how it evolved and what are its effects. However, claims that co-operation is the result of altruistic or intellectual behaviour flies in the face of the widely-accepted theories of Darwin and Freud and all evidence of human and genetic science. Animal co-operation is easy to identify between kin, but human co-operation extends across national, racial and religious boundaries. Human ability to co-operate with complete strangers is unique and unexplained.

A new theory of human evolution is necessary. It needs to address the co-operation of strange males, their avoidance of violence, the delay in sexual gratification that this usually causes, and the essential demographic success that results. It should explain history without inconsistencies, explain why existing histories are inconsistent, and explain why no-one else has thought of this theory.

Tony Milne did not set out to invent this theory or to prove it. Rather, he set out to rewrite history in a logical way from the multiple points of view available to him. The result of this rewriting was the slow evolution of a theory that fitted the facts, and a proof that supported it.

He started from a logical point, following up the mythical history of Agincourt and its aftermath with the history of England from its founding in 1066 until its conquest by a Scot in 1603. This was part of a general history of the European empires.
In his research to prepare these works, he used the logic and analysis systems he had learned and practiced during a long career as an athlete, sailor, trainer, salesman and business manager. In all these roles, there is a strong motivation to perform, to measure the performance objectively, and to define specific behaviours that lead to improved performance. It might actually be better to fail, to lose, to suffer the humiliation of poor performance in order to study, to learn and to create a theory of success.

As a rather poor athlete and without any professional coaching, he studied the means of improving his performance through training, behaviour and strategy. Through observation of his own results in athletics, rugby, hockey, basketball and martial arts, and the study of others in the very different sports of cycling, high-altitude mountaineering, golf and chess, he improved his game and drew some conclusions about the nature of human competition.

His education helped to develop a more analytical approach to defining human nature. He is a mathematician. Mathematicians create formal systems to describe objects and behaviour, to create rules that allow them to predict results and behaviour. Thus, mathematicians can say: “If you have three apples and I take two away, then you will have one left.” Maths is plural because it is a set of languages used in many different fields of study. Scientists may create their own languages without realizing that what they are using is mathematics.

At college, where he continued his mathematical training, he specialized in operations research (OR). Some prefer to call it operational analysis or scientific management. It enables the analysis of processes and organizations, their optimization and the root cause of success and failure. The cause is always rooted in human behaviour. The ability to identify, define, demand, train and control human behaviour enables a scientific (logical) approach to any business, or any sporting or military venture. Part of OR is game theory, another mathematical language that enables the precise analysis of decision-making interactions.

Milne continued his education studying transactional analysis (TA), a behavioural theory that uses mathematical models to describe human interactions and predict the possible results.

Throughout his life, as athlete, student, officer in the Royal Navy and businessman, he has observed people and organisations, compared them, and sought the behaviours that led to success or failure. He has copied those behaviours that lead to success as best he can, and encouraged them in others. He realised very quickly that much advice given by trainers, manager and coaches is erroneous, guilty of survivor bias (a term he only learned and understood much later), dogma or politics. The general lack of interest by leaders and trainers in methods of improving organisational performance is only one of many surprises that awaits any scientific student of business, military organisations or sports teams. Unsuccessful sports teams are rarely popular subjects for books, but there are many popular accounts of business and military incompetence. The countless books and courses available that claim a magic formula for success without any scientific basis are even more astonishing, especially to any writer who struggles to sell his own work.

Another interesting outcome of observation is that people avoid analysing scientifically their own life. This is perfectly rational behaviour; no genetic benefit comes from understanding. Attempts to understand, like attempts to improve sports performance through strategy, training and changes to behaviour, are the work of failures. Those who succeed through natural ability or native cunning have no need. Instead, they focus on climbing the hierarchy that they have selected and are oblivious to reality, indeed anything outside their own hierarchy. There is little interest in learning anything unless it can help with their climb. Some people who have tried the climb and failed then give up and adopt a hobby; they too, have little motivation to study the cause of their humiliation. Both winners and losers prefer to follow the direction given them by their genes, their environment, peer pressure and conditioning.

Colleagues remarked on Milne’s powers of observation, but he was usually unconscious of the skills that he used to make sense of the world, not least because he found it difficult to do so. In addition, humans rarely accept observation without changing their behaviour, and some even object violently to what they perceive as a form of psychoanalysis, an intrusion into their personal space, an invasion of intimacy.
Mostly, his interpretation of the world contradicts the perceived wisdom of religious, political and academic figures who dominate the printed page. There is the dogmatic and dualistic approach of religious writers, who continue to publish even after the publication of Darwin’s The Origin of Species and whose readers continue to buy and read their works. There is also a brand of academic writers whose belief in the saintliness of their historical records borders on the miraculous; that these are mainly the output of tax-collectors seeking to justify their extractions escapes them.

Even so, there are some thinkers and writers whose work inspired him to continue his investigations. Stephen Potter and Eric Berne, Ron Dillon and David Gibson taught him how to think about human behaviour. Stephen Potter was an English writer and inventor of Gamesmanship, a humorous look at human behaviour that was the first attempt to define stranger interactions. Eric Berne took this idea and expanded it to create transactional analysis. Potter and Berne were some of the first writers to describe human relations without dogma and based on observed behaviour.

Ron Dillon is the greatest authority on workplace adult learning. He led the development of competence-based learning as part of the Learning Organization Network in the UK. His role at Rank Xerox as Training Quality Assurance Manager guaranteed results in behavioural change training. Milne was fortunate to work with Ron over many years, to put into practice the skills that he learnt, and to see and measure the results in learning and business objectives.

David Gibson taught a range of skills and techniques whose effectiveness has been proven by modern technology to improve adult learning. David introduced Milne to the best ways of learning new behaviour.

Nigel MacLennan is a psychology professor who confidently predicts improvement in performance through changes in human behaviour. He provided Milne with the motivation to challenge the indifferent and overcome their objections.

For eight years, Milne directed a training department. Thanks to the goals and support of his management at Gestetner/NRG, and the freedom and budget that he controlled, he developed training into a highly objective, results-focused operation. He implemented behavioural objectives for the training goals and observed these before and after interventions. He also introduced brain-friendly accelerated learning methods that helped to absorb and transmit large amounts of information quickly and efficiently. He taught communication, business and management skills using games.

He taught thousands of sales people, hundreds of managers, and dozens of directors. Later, in charge of his own team, he surpassed all the records in his company to increase sales by 40% each year. As guaranteed by Nigel MacLennan, he more than doubled his salary. Now he continues in a commercial role, opening new markets for the most successful industrial computing company. At the same time, he is researching, writing history books, and developing the theory of the Tax Man.

The application of his skills in observation, pattern recognition, classification, definition and differentiation to historical and contemporary research produced this theory of human evolution from mammal and ape. This theory he expresses genetically and behaviourally, and proves scientifically with reference to the history of humanity and its various societies. He can also show that alternative theories for human evolution are not sustainable when confronted by well-documented evidence.